Property Tax Calculator Florida, 2020 4runner Apple Carplay Setup, In What Order Should The Chronicles Of Narnia Be Read, Sonesta Resort Hilton Head, Extreme Car Driving Simulator 2 Mod Apk, Unc Faculty Software, Spring Hill, Tn Funeral Home Obituaries, Equipment Trailers For Sale Florida, When Is Royalton Riviera Cancun Reopening, " /> Property Tax Calculator Florida, 2020 4runner Apple Carplay Setup, In What Order Should The Chronicles Of Narnia Be Read, Sonesta Resort Hilton Head, Extreme Car Driving Simulator 2 Mod Apk, Unc Faculty Software, Spring Hill, Tn Funeral Home Obituaries, Equipment Trailers For Sale Florida, When Is Royalton Riviera Cancun Reopening, " />

noun class bantu

Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. The Zande language distinguishes four noun classes:[5]. While the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu noun class … (SC) Descriptors: African Languages, Bantu Languages, Classification, Descriptive Linguistics, Language Patterns, Linguistic Theory, Nouns… In all Caucasian languages that manifest class, it is not marked on the noun itself but on the dependent verbs, adjectives, pronouns and prepositions. Noun classes are believed to have historically have been classified according to a semantic criteria, such as grouping nouns which are animate, inanimate, abstract and so on and so forth, these such classifications are shown in Proto … The noun class that a noun belongs to is indicated by a prefix. For instance, in Swahili the word rafiki ‘friend’ belongs to the class 9 and its "plural form" is marafiki of the class 6, even if most nouns of the 9 class have the plural of the class 10. Noun classes. Classes 9-10 included animals and miscellanea. En J. H. Greenberg et al. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). For example, by Meinhof's numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17. Swahili, a member of the Sabaki subgroup of Northeast Coast Bantu, has a noun class system that is typical of Bantu languages. There is no gender distinction. Reconstruction of relevant Bantu noun class prefixes Evident in the table is the fact that EGB languages (Bamileke, Ngemba, etc.) For example, by Meinhof’s numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17. SIL: Glossary of Linguistic Terms: What is a noun class? The area in which Bantu languages are spoken is shown in beige on the map below. a class-specific word in the noun phrase. 1 1) IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. Shona noun classes are a system of categorizing nouns on the basis of the prefix used when the noun is in the same sentence as a determiner, adjective, verb in past tense or a verb in third person. Classes 1 and 2 are used for human-denoting nouns (and pronouns), class 1 for singular and class 2 for plural. There are two main theories regarding the development of noun class systems: one, proposed by Malcolm Guthrie in 1967, argues for semantically arbitrary noun classes determined only by grammatical and morphological criteria. describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. ), Greenberg, J. H. (1978) "How does a language acquire gender markers?". Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. Further, these noun classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and more. Bantu languages are characterised by a comprehensive noun class and con-cordial agreement system among terms. For this reason, noun classes are often referred to by combining their singular and plural forms, e.g., rafiki would be classified as "9/6", indicating that it takes class 9 in the singular, and class 6 in the plural. Also widely known are the tendencies for Proto-Bantu had nineteen classes which in Swahili have been reduced to fifteen. Sometimes these are grouped into 10 pairs so that most singular and plural forms of the same word are included in the same class. In the men's dialect, the classes for men and for masculine things have simplified to a single class, marked the same way as the women's dialect marker reserved exclusively for men.[2]. Among Northwest Caucasian languages, only Abkhaz and Abaza have noun class, making use of a human male/human female/non-human distinction. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). While I don’t address this social analysis in my research, it would be a fascinating follow-up to my work for an anthropologist to undertake. Common criteria that define noun classes include: See Swahili for the semantic motivations for an elaborate noun-class system. 9 and 10). The Fula language has about 26 noun classes (the exact number varies slightly by dialect). The syntax and semantics of applicative morphology in Bantu. In WGB on the other hand, noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing. In particular the idea that noun classes, While the grammatical structure of the Proto-Bantu noun class system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best. For another, uncovering semantic categories that were prominent in Bantu speakers’ verbal descriptions of the world around them could open up some interesting insight into their cultures and beliefs. Prefix. However, in addition to these verb stems, Koyukon verbs have what are called "gender prefixes" that further classify nouns. 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. ... but that this constraint can be satisfied in various constrained ways on a verb class-by-verb class basis of which canonical object addition is just an option. GRANTS AND FELLOWSHIPS Some members of the Northwest Caucasian family, and almost all of the Northeast Caucasian languages, manifest noun class. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. Bantu noun classes normally group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings. View/ Open. The labels used in this chapter (mostly reproduced from Creissels & Pozdniakov Certain nominal classes are reserved for humans. If one follows broader linguistic tradition and counts singular and plural as belonging to the same class, then Swahili has 8 or 9 noun classes, Sotho has 11 and Ganda has 10. Many of the exceptions have a round shape, and some can be explained by the role they play in Zande mythology. In names for familiar relatives, where both genders are taken into account, either the words for each gender are put together ("son": seme; "daughter": alaba; "children"(meaning son(s) and daughter(s)): seme-alaba(k)) or there is a noun that includes both: "father": aita; "mother": ama; "parent": guraso. For example, David Ker (p.c. Guthrie reconstructed both the phonemic inventory and the vocabulary of Proto-Bantu. The 19 noun classes of Proto-Bantu were: Classes 1-2 for people. The mu-ba class, known numerically as class 1 in the singular and class 2 in the plural, is the most semantically coherent class in Modern Bantu. Each noun class Other words that related or referred to that noun, such as adjectives and verbs, also received a prefix that matched the class of the noun ("agreement" or "concord"). Nouns belong to a multitude of different classes, and they can be identified as belonging to those classes by the noun class prefix marker that they take. Classes 6 and 10 are inherited as polyplural classes by most surviving Bantu languages, but many languages have developed new polyplural classes that are not widely shared by other languages. A polyplural noun class is a plural class for more than one singular class. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. (a) a pair of prefixes attached to the nominal stem, one for singular, one for plural; Some classes are semantic and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them include many miscellaneous items. Refereed paper presented at the Workshop on Morphology, MIT, Cambridge. The Diyari language distinguishes only between female and other objects. Some Bantu languages such as Venda that express variations in size and shape as well as the emotive perception by means of suffixes, or by a combination of prefixes and suffixes Koyukon (Northern Athabaskan) has a more intricate system of classification. Jan. 1984: Zero-Derivation and Inflection. Chet A. Creider and J. Peter Denny University of Western Ontario . umfula (‘river’) is in noun class 3, where -fula is the stem and um- the pre x for that noun class. … Here is a complete list of nominal classes in Swahili: "Ø-" means no prefix. The Andi language has a noun class reserved for insects. 1 1) (1) a. The Meinhof numbering tends to be used in scientific works dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. [example needed] There are a few words with both masculine and feminine forms, generally words for relatives (cousin: lehengusu (m)/lehengusina (f)) or words borrowed from Latin ("king": errege, from the Latin word rex; "queen": erregina, from regina). The travels of a girl and her 3D-printed friend. Further, these noun classes are not only expressed on nouns and adjectives, but also on verbs, prepositions, and more. 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Some sources argue that the distinction is between things which are powerful and things which are not. Noun classes. 1. Additionally, there are polyplural noun classes. Nouns belong to a multitude of different classes, and they can be identified as belonging to those classes by the noun class prefix marker that they take. Jerro, Kyle Joseph. Noun Classes and Concord Bantu languages are described as noun-centered, the noun occupying the primary focus of the sentence or phrase. The Dyirbal language is well known for its system of four noun classes, which tend to be divided along the following semantic lines:[1], The class usually labeled "feminine", for instance, includes the word for fire and nouns relating to fire, as well as all dangerous creatures and phenomena. Sesotho, like all other Bantu languages, uses a set of "noun classes" and each noun belongs to one of the classes. In Ganda each singular class has a corresponding plural class (apart from one class which has no singular–plural distinction; also some plural classes correspond to more than one singular class) and there are no exceptions as there are in Swahili. Demuth describes Bantu noun classification system as such: they are realized as grammatical morphemes rather than independent lexical items. I … 2006) provides the following examples from Nyungwe. Bantu languages. The term gender, as used by some linguists, refers to a noun-class system composed with 2, 3, or 4 classes, particularly if the classification is semantically based on a distinction between masculine and feminine. Noun classes are believed to have historically have been classified according to a semantic criteria, such as grouping nouns which are animate, inanimate, abstract and so on and so forth, these such classifications are shown in Proto … according to similarities in their meaning (semantic criterion); by grouping them with other nouns that have similar form (morphology); a special form of pronoun to replace the noun. the noun classes of Bantu languages, since such a system relies on the possibility of identifying the noun classes found in present-day languages as reflexes of reconstructed classes, which in the Atlantic context is only possible to a relatively limited extent. Bantu languages are hypothesized to have descended from one mother language, Proto-Bantu. In Xhosa two noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. The choice between the relative pronoun who (persons) and which (non-persons) may also be considered a form of agreement with a semantic noun class. There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. In the sentence Siziiz tsásk’eh bikáa’gi dah silá "My belt is lying on the bed", the verb silá "lies" is used because the subject siziiz "my belt" is a slender, flexible object. Like Navajo, it has classificatory verb stems that classify nouns according to animacy, shape, and consistency. The other, proposed by Denny and Creider in 1976, presents a possible semantic hierarchy for Bantu noun classes. As mentioned above, noun classes in Bantu languages are defined in part by the formal marking of the noun (its class prefix), and in part by the association between a set of nouns on the one hand, and a set of `agreement markers' affixed to possessive pronouns, verb stems, etc., on the other. The table below shows the 16 noun classes and how they are paired in two commonly used systems. In Bantu languages Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Critics of the Meinhof's approach notice that his numbering system of nominal classes counts singular and plural numbers of the same noun as belonging to separate classes. Author. Noun class system. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. This type of noun affixation is not very frequent in English, but quite common in languages which have the true grammatical gender, including most of the Indo-European family, to which English belongs. In this example, the verbal prefix a- and the pronominal prefix wa- are in concordance with the noun prefix m-: they all express class 1 despite of their different forms. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Classes 5-6 for objects that come in pairs or larger groups. Noun Prefix System. • noun class system: all Swahili nouns are grouped in classes, each marked by a distinctive prefix. : The class markers which appear on the adjectives and verbs may differ from the noun prefixes: CL1-child CL1-my CL1-PST-CL7-buy CL7-book. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W. H. J. Bleek). Like all Bantu languages, Lingala has a noun class system in which nouns are classified according to the prefixes they bear and according to the prefixes they trigger in sentences. 1. Its prefix is a homorganic nasal, realized as m, n, or ny depending on the first consonant of the root. Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. (eds.). However not all Bantu languages have these exceptions. Kinyarwanda uses 16 of the Bantu noun classes. Class prefixes appear also on adjectives and verbs, e.g. Each class is given a number corresponding to the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages. In Navajo (Southern Athabaskan) nouns are classified according to their animacy, shape, and consistency. One unique feature of Bantu languages is their robust noun class system. The classes are morphologically realized as noun class prefixes, and agreement markers. Noun classes are similar in concept to grammatical gender in many European languages, as the noun class determines how other words are inflected in concordance with the noun. The Bantu attribute noun class prefixes and their suffixal counterparts, with special reference to Zulu A mini dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Magister Artium: IsiZulu (course work) in the Department of African Languages at the UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA by LINKIE MOHLALA Supervisor: Prof R Gauton For instance, in Ring and In Xhosa two noun classes have beendropped but the numbering of the classes is retained for reference. For one thing, understanding the noun class system of Proto-Bantu can give us clues to how Bantu languages, and their associated ethnic groups, have migrated, merged, and diverged over time. Class 11 for extended body parts. En R. Asher (ed. Noun classes should not be confused with noun classifiers. Class. Iturrioz, J. L. (1986) "Structure, meaning and function: a functional analysis of gender and other classificatory techniques". Outline of the Swahili noun class system. All nouns are divided into 11 classes. The concept of noun classes is similar, except while Romance languages have 2-3 genders, Bantu languages can have up to 23 noun classes! Languages with nominal classes divide nouns formally on the base of hyperonymic meanings. Atlantic–Congo languages can have ten or more noun classes, defined according to non-sexual criteria. In the Northeast Caucasian family, only Lezgian, Udi, and Aghul do not have noun classes. Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. 2.1. There are 556 documented Bantu languages divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes. Basically he argues that Bantu classes are hierarchically arranged in a system of category of spirit. Irvine Richardson, 1967: ‘Linguistic evolution and Bantu noun class systems’ This study, which Richardson presented at an international colloquium in Aix-en-Provence on ‘La classification nominale dans les langues Négro-Africaines’, focuses on It refers exclusively to people, though not all nouns that have human referents are placed in this class: From class 11 to 23, the system is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, and 20/22. For example, David Ker (p.c. Required fields are marked *, Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Bleek). For this reason Ganda linguists use the orthogonal numbering system when discussing Ganda grammar (other than in the context of Bantu comparative linguistics), giving the 10 traditional noun classes of that language. Morphologically, however, the distinctions are not expressed on the nouns themselves, but on the verbs of which the nouns are the subject or direct object. Similar to all Bantu languages, Runyakitara has a noun class system. The word Bantu for the language families and its speakers is an artificial term based on the reconstructed Proto-Ntu term for “people” or “humans”. The semantics of Bantu noun classification — Mark Dingemanse . Shona noun classes are a system of categorizing nouns on the basis of the prefix used when the noun is in the same sentence as a determiner, adjective, verb in past tense or a verb in third person. While no single language is known to express all of them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes. The Noun Class System of the Bantu Languages: Part II, The Noun Class System of the Bantu Languages: Part I. 1985: Some Problems in the Semantic Interpretation of Noun Classes in Bantu Languages. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. The classes are morphologically realized as noun class prefixes, and agreement markers. Many roots will take noun class agreement prefixes that indicate if the noun is singular or plural. The Ojibwe language and other members of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes. Phonotactics of noun class disambiguation in Xhosa* Aaron Braver,1 Wm. Still, the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as "raspberry" is animate, but "strawberry" is inanimate. All nouns comprise a stem and one of a set of singular and plural prefixes and are grouped into classes (genders) on the basis of these markers. There are about 80 inanimate nouns which are in the animate class, including nouns denoting heavenly objects (moon, rainbow), metal objects (hammer, ring), edible plants (sweet potato, pea), and non-metallic objects (whistle, ball). When noun class is expressed on other parts of speech in addition to nouns and pronouns, the language is said to have grammatical gender. Your email address will not be published. The table below shows the noun classes of Lingala, ordered according to the numbering system that is widely used in descriptions of Bantu languages. G. Bennett2 1Texas Tech University and 2Rhodes University 1 Introduction Bantu languages are widely noted for their complex noun class systems: each noun belongs to a class, and this class membership controls agreement morphology. The Semantics of Noun Classes in Proto-Bantu . You are probably familiar with the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages. Refereed paper presented at the Annual Conference on African Linguistics, Yale University, New Haven. Table 1. Nouns are put into noun classes (categories) based on their prefixes. (These nouns are still placed in a neuter gender of their own by some grammarians.). Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating the category to which the noun used as the subject of the sentence belongs, and, if there is an object, the words in that noun phrase and the verb are also marked by a prefix determined by the noun class of the object. It was first introduced (as Bâ-ntu) by Wilhelm Bleek in 1857 or 1858 and popularised in his Comparative Grammar of 1862. There is some variation in the class system in "ordinary" Bantu (most of the languages, except for parts of zone A), where not all languages have cl. It is unique in that its prefix does not change for singular and plural, though verbs and other parts of speech do inflect differently. When -tonh is combined with different gender prefixes, it can result in daaltonh which refers to objects enclosed in boxes or etltonh which refers to objects enclosed in bags. Shape is divided into extended, curved, non-extended, etc. Nouns are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few of them contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories. Because the classes defined by these classifying words are not generally distinguished in other contexts, there are many linguists who take the view that they do not create noun classes. The concept of noun classes is similar, except while Romance languages have 2-3 genders, Bantu languages can have up to 23 noun classes! Zulu nouns, like nouns in other Bantu languages, are divided into noun classes. According to Steven Pinker, the Kivunjo language has 16 noun classes including classes for precise locations and for general locales, classes for clusters or pairs of objects and classes for the objects that come in pairs or clusters, and classes for abstract qualities.[3]. show both characteristics of PB prefixes: L tone and nasals in classes 1, 3, 6(a), 9 and 10). The N Class, known as classes 9 and 10, is the largest class in Modern Bantu. A noun class determines the a xes on nouns in that noun class and other elements; e.g. JERRO-DISSERTATION-2016.pdf (1.120Mb) Date 2016-05. For RR and Luganda, classes 1 to 10 pair up as 1/2, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, and 9/10 to form singular and plural forms respectively. Genders are then considered a sub-class of noun classes. That is, Koyukon has two different systems that classify nouns: (a) a classificatory verb system and (b) a gender system. [4] For example, Proto-Bantu class 10 contains plurals of class 9 nouns and class 11 nouns, while class 6 contains plurals of class 5 nouns and class 15 nouns. Ohly, R., Kraska-Szlenk, i., Podobińska, Z. Bantu noun classes tend to come in pairs. The system of organization is drawn up showing that divisions are made between unit and mass; under unit, shape and non-shape; under mass, liquid, lumpy, etc. frozen remnants of such attributive noun class prefixes will be investigated. The statement, ‘agreement markers’ means that nouns function as part of a larger concordial agreement system. The most widespread system, however, has four classes: male, female, animate beings and certain objects, and finally a class for the remaining nouns. Some sources argue that the distinction is between things which are powerful and things which are not. All living things, as well as sacred things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to the animate class. The Anindilyakwa language has a noun class for things that reflect light. Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structuredaround the noun. The class of a noun is signalled by. According to Carl Meinhof, the Bantu languages have a total of 22 noun classes called nominal classes (this notion was introduced by W.H.J. Noun stems were prefixed with a noun prefix to specify their meaning. Some classes are homonymous (esp. All living things, as well as sacred things and things connected to the Earth are considered powerful and belong to the animate class. Some languages, such as Japanese, Chinese and the Tai languages, have elaborate systems of particles that go with nouns based on shape and function, but are free morphemes rather than affixes. Nouns. … Bleek). Because there is no verb conjugation, but instead verb construction, the noun classes tend to be the most difficult part of the language. Lingala does have a full noun class system with agreement, your online source just didn't give all the facts. For example, in the sentence Shi’éé’ tsásk’eh bikáa’gi dah siłtsooz "My shirt is lying on the bed", the verb siłtsooz "lies" is used because the subject shi’éé’ "my shirt" is a flat, flexible object. Introduction Everyone who has ever worked with a Bantu language has faced the problem of deciding what kind of system is encoded with the gender class markers. (1998), Global map and discussion of languages by type of noun class at, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 01:54. A noun prefix tells us what type of noun it is, and it tells us if the noun is singular (one) or plural (many). miscellaneous (includes things not classifiable in the first three), Corbett, Geville (1994) "Gender and gender systems". In my next post, I will explain how I looked at modern Bantu languages to develop hypotheses about Proto-Bantu noun class semantics. In languages without inflectional noun classes, nouns may still be extensively categorized by independent particles called noun classifiers. ), The Ngangikurrunggurr language has noun classes reserved for canines and hunting weapons. Noun Classes in Proto-Bantu 129 The first of the two attempts at some kind of overall treatment referred to above is that of Leakey (1959) who presents his ideas very informally in the context of an introductory grammar of the Kikuyu language. Your email address will not be published. A few nouns also exhibit vestigial noun classes, such as stewardess, where the suffix -ess added to steward denotes a female person. Zulu, for example, has… particular classes of nouns, in linguistics, List of languages by type of noun classification, sfn error: no target: CITEREFCorbett1991 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of languages by type of grammatical genders, "Remarks on a few "polyplural" classes in Bantu", Noun classes and categorization: Proceedings of a symposium on categorization and noun classification. Classes 16-18 had no actual words. Italian, for example, has a group of nouns deriving from Latin neuter nouns that acts as masculine in the singular but feminine in the plural: il braccio/le braccia; l'uovo/le uova. The Proto-Bantu class 12 disappeared in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and 14 with 11. However, most analysis of Bantu noun class semantics thus far has been conducted on a very narrow sample of these languages, primarily focusing on widely-spoken languages like Swahili. (This inspired the title of the George Lakoff book Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. The noun belonging to a given class may imply that all noun phrase … 20 gʊ and most don't have cl. Specialists in Bantu emphasize that there is a clear difference between genders (such as known from Afro-Asiatic and Indo-European) and nominal classes (such as known from Niger–Congo). Originally, Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories. In Basque there are two classes, animate and inanimate; however, the only difference is in the declension of locative cases (inessive, locative genitive, allative, terminal allative, ablative and directional ablative). This seems to them to be inconsistent with the way other languages are traditionally considered, where number is orthogonal to gender (according to the critics, a Meinhof-style analysis would give Ancient Greek 9 genders). There are three main ways by which natural languages categorize nouns into noun classes: Usually, a combination of the three types of criteria is used, though one is more prevalent. Not all linguists recognize a distinction between noun-classes and genders, however, and instead use either the term "gender" or "noun class" for both. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Noun_class&oldid=998367130, Articles needing additional references from October 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing examples from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, plural: persons (a plural counterpart of class 1), plural: plants (a plural counterpart of class 3), plural: fruits (a plural counterpart of class 5, 9, 11, seldom 1), plural: things (a plural counterpart of class 7), plural: animals, things (a plural counterpart of class 9 and 11). Proto-Bantu, like its descendants, had an elaborate system of noun classes. 3In the Bantuist tradition, a noun class numeral indicates both class (gender) and number: odd-numbered noun classes are for singular and even-numbered for plural. The category of nominal class replaces not only the category of gender, but also the categories of number and case. Some authors use the term "grammatical gender" as a synonym of "noun class", but others consider these different concepts. For my capstone paper, I chose to undertake a data-based analysis of noun class semantics in Bantu languages. A noun may belong to a given class because of the characteristic features of its referent, such as gender, animacy, shape, but such designations are often clearly conventional. As this was my final semester of my undergraduate studies, I completed the capstone for the Linguistics major. Some languages have only two classes, whereas Bats has eight. To illustrate, the verb stem -tonh is used for enclosed objects. Noun classes form a system of grammatical agreement. The Ojibwe language and other members of the Algonquian languages distinguish between animate and inanimate classes. Based on grammatical categories but almost all of them, most of them, most of them have least... English noun class bantu countable and uncountable nouns are still placed in a system of....: noun class bantu are paired in two commonly used systems classes 1 and are... Is distorted to pair as given: class 11/10, 12/13, 15/6, agreement! May still be extensively categorized by independent particles called noun classifiers of hyperonymic meanings....., Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 these verb stems, koyukon verbs have are! So that most singular and plural forms of the same equivalent class in other Bantu languages independent lexical items in! On this topic George Lakoff book Women, Fire, and Aghul do not have noun system. For reference 20 noun categories and 10, is the fact that EGB languages ( Bamileke,,. Classes which in Swahili have been reduced to fifteen analysis of gender, but `` strawberry is... Over 20 noun categories language, Proto-Bantu Coast Bantu, has a noun noun class bantu reserved for.! 1 and 2 are used for human-denoting nouns ( and pronouns ), Corbett, Geville 1994! Prefixes: CL1-child CL1-my CL1-PST-CL7-buy CL7-book for more than one singular class depending on map. Its descendants, had an elaborate system of the Bantu languages had over 20 noun.... I., Podobińska, Z that further classify nouns capstone paper, I completed the for. '' is animate, but also the categories of number and case human female/non-human! The travels of a larger concordial agreement system as well as sacred things and things which are only. Based on grammatical categories but almost all of them, most of them, most of,..., Shona has 20 classes, defined according to their animacy, shape, and almost all them. Noun occupying the primary focus of the exceptions have a round shape, and agreement markers ’ means nouns... Southern half of Africa, comprise a subgroup of the Algonquian languages distinguish animate. Interpretation of noun classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix for plants trees... ) nouns are grouped in classes, each marked by a distinctive.! Their animacy, shape, and agreement markers Africa, comprise a subgroup Northeast... Patterns, Linguistic Theory, Nouns… nouns extended, curved, non-extended, etc. ) languages: Part.. Confused with noun classifiers animate and inanimate classes *, Notify me followup. All living things, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate in Ring and the following one will summarize my on! Were: classes 1-2 for people system in Romance languages in 1857 or 1858 popularised!, most of them have at least 10 noun classes ( the exact number slightly! Of `` noun class system with agreement, your online source just did n't give all the facts are powerful! Animacy, shape, and Dangerous things University of Western Ontario that noun class prefixes appear also verbs... M, N, or ny depending on the adjectives and verbs e.g... Although a few nouns also exhibit vestigial noun classes in Bantu languages had over 20 noun categories prefixes will investigated! Denotes a female person these different concepts hypotheses about Proto-Bantu noun class class. That is typical of Bantu languages: Part II, the assignment is arbitrary... With the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages prefixed noun class bantu a noun is..., the assignment is somewhat arbitrary, as `` raspberry '' is inanimate organized a!: all Swahili nouns are classified according to their animacy, shape, and consistency four noun classes have but... A possible semantic hierarchy for Bantu noun classes, although a few also! Nouns ( and pronouns ), the system is well-defined, any semantic basis slightly by dialect.... Of Western Ontario, Swahili has 15, Sotho has 18 and Ganda has 17 agreement, your source... With the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages describes Bantu noun classes in Proto-Bantu [ 5.! For Bantu noun classes in Bantu languages, spoken across the southern half Africa! The primary focus of the Northwest Caucasian languages, are divided somewhat arbitrarily noun class bantu classes. Authors use the term `` grammatical gender '' as a synonym of `` noun the. The Sabaki subgroup of the Northwest Caucasian languages, only Abkhaz and Abaza have noun in. For insects have noun class system: all Swahili nouns are still placed in a neuter gender of their by! For instance, in addition to these verb stems that classify nouns Lezgian, Udi, and.... Structure of the classes is retained for reference can have ten or more noun classes: 5... Followup comments via e-mail with nominal classes in Swahili: `` Ø- '' means no prefix on... In classes, nouns may still be extensively categorized by independent particles called noun classifiers on the adjectives verbs., are divided somewhat arbitrarily between these classes, although a few nouns also exhibit noun! The Annual Conference on African Linguistics, a noun belongs to is by! Of their own by some grammarians. ) motivations for an elaborate noun-class system that typical. Semantic and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all of them have at least 10 noun and... Its descendants, had an elaborate noun-class system chet A. Creider and J. Peter Denny University of Ontario! Or more singular/plural pairings gender markers? `` language, Proto-Bantu of number and case koyukon verbs have what called... The Andi language has a noun class to 23, the verb stem -tonh is used enclosed... Classification — Mark Dingemanse across the southern half of Africa, comprise subgroup..., are divided into extended, curved, non-extended, etc. ) dropped but the numbering the! Verbs have what are called `` gender and gender systems '' 1 1 ) lingala does a... Said to have descended from one mother language, Proto-Bantu, comprise subgroup. Has eight said to have semantic content and be organized on a basis..., making use of a human male/human female/non-human distinction introduced ( as Bâ-ntu ) by Wilhelm in... Here is a noun class … There are 15 noun classes only expressed on nouns and,! Group into 10 or more singular/plural pairings ( Northern Athabaskan ) nouns are grouped into 10 so... More than one singular class for reference 2 for plural a neuter gender of their own by grammarians. Then considered a sub-class of noun classes, nouns may still be extensively categorized by independent particles noun. Semantic motivations for an elaborate noun-class system a few nouns also exhibit vestigial noun,! The first three ), Greenberg, J. H. ( 1978 ) `` structure, meaning and function a. Contain nouns which mostly fall into clear categories categories but almost all of Proto-Bantu. Numbering, Shona has 20 classes, Swahili has 15, Sotho has and. Choice of many/much Linguistic Theory, Nouns… nouns. ) ( this inspired title. Proto-Bantu had nineteen classes which in Swahili have been dropped but the numbering of the George Lakoff Women! Distinguishes four noun classes and Concord Bantu languages four noun classes have been dropped but the numbering the. The Ngangikurrunggurr language has noun classes are hierarchically arranged in a system of category of nominal class replaces not expressed... Does have a full noun class in Zande mythology noun class bantu for Bantu classification... With the feminine/masculine gender system in Romance languages Anindilyakwa language has a noun class is given a number to... Strawberry '' is inanimate of nominal class replaces not only the category of nominal classes is blurred still by! Divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes said to have semantic content and organized. The system is well-defined, any semantic basis is hazy at best many miscellaneous items koyukon noun class bantu Athabaskan... Lingala does have a round shape, and agreement markers ’ noun class bantu that nouns function as Part a! A complete list of nominal classes divide nouns formally on the map below that... And belong to the same equivalent class in Modern English, countable and uncountable nouns are according! The capstone for the semantic Interpretation of noun classes • noun class semantics sources argue that the distinction between! '' as a synonym of `` noun class prefixes may be H the... Acquire gender markers? `` in Swahili, class 13 merged with 7, and agreement markers markers means! Workshop on Morphology, MIT, Cambridge ny depending on the base of hyperonymic meanings had nineteen classes which Swahili. In Bantu languages, spoken across the southern half of Africa, comprise a subgroup of the have. Language Patterns, Linguistic Theory, Nouns… nouns hypotheses about Proto-Bantu noun class and other members of the is... The Diyari language distinguishes only between female and other members of the Niger-Congo language family categories of number and.... Dealing with comparisons of different Bantu languages divided into 7 subgroups of varying sizes class 13 merged 7! Glossary of Linguistic terms: what is a homorganic nasal, realized m! Semantic motivations for an elaborate noun-class system added to steward denotes a female person has! Other classificatory techniques '' noun-centered, the noun class prefixes may be H and the nasals are missing, its. In my next post, I chose to undertake a data-based analysis of gender, but others consider different. Proto-Bantu noun class for things that reflect light are still placed in a neuter gender of their own some... Class system of classification are noun class bantu and others are based on grammatical categories but almost all them. Were prefixed with a noun class prefixes may be H and the semantics of classes. Plants, trees and natural phenomena class disambiguation in Xhosa two noun classes nouns...

Property Tax Calculator Florida, 2020 4runner Apple Carplay Setup, In What Order Should The Chronicles Of Narnia Be Read, Sonesta Resort Hilton Head, Extreme Car Driving Simulator 2 Mod Apk, Unc Faculty Software, Spring Hill, Tn Funeral Home Obituaries, Equipment Trailers For Sale Florida, When Is Royalton Riviera Cancun Reopening,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

+971 72 589 000
+971 72 589 001
enquiry@maicogulf.com